Leonardo was one of the greatest men of the Renaissance revealing his genius as a painter , sculptor, architect, engineer, scientist and inventor.
The illegitimate son of Ser Piero and a humble commoner , born April 15, 1452 in Vinci , who died May 2, 1519 in the castle of Cloux near Amboise (France). Leonardo grew up in her father's house and immediately showed exceptional provisions for art. At 17, he began attending the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio 's painting in Florence ( there was fellow Botticelli , Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi ) and here is perfected in drawing and painting , which were also used as tools for its research and studies in all fields . From 1482 or 1483 remains in Milan at the court of Ludovico il Moro until 1500 ; at this time deepens and perfects his scientific studies and painted the famous " Last Supper " (preserved in the refectory of the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan ) and organizes the court festivals , designing irrigation of Lombardy and erect the model the equestrian statue of Francesco Sforza. In 1500 , fell Ludovico il Moro, leaves Milan then wandering for several years in various Italian cities , where among other things, building fortifications ; in Florence he painted the " Battle of Anghiari" in the Palazzo della Signoria and this period is the famous "Mona Lisa" , perhaps the most famous painting by Leonardo , preserved in the Louvre Museum in Paris. In 1513 he went to Rome under the protection of Giuliano de 'Medici , and having designed the new St. Peter's Basilica and the draining of the Pontine Marshes . In 1517 , summoned by the King of France , who wanted to adorn his court with the products of the new culture that he had discovered and admired in Italy, travels to this country where he spent so princely the last years of his life in the castle of Cloux assigned to him .
Greatest genius of all time -In The scientific, theoretical and practical, no less than in the artistic , vast and varied was his business. - In the field of statics and dynamics made deep studies on the balance of the body ; gave a clear definition of the concept of force supporting the impetus theory of Buridan G. and stating explicitly , against the Aristotelian concepts , that "air prevents and shortens the motion of the mobile" ; studied and solved the problem with a tightrope coming to a close obtainable with the theorem Varignon appeared a few centuries earlier . - In the field of hydraulics Leonardo recognized the fundamental principles of hydrostatics , including that of communicating vessels filled with liquids of different densities ; discovered the principle of hydrodynamic constant flow rate of a liquid flow , according to which , in steady state , the speed of the current in a water course is inversely proportional to the cross section of the current itself . - In the field of technical flight and analyze studied the flight of birds , and left many ingenious designs of flying machines, including a helicopter and a parachute design ; similar research took place , for boats underwater , on the movement of fish. - In the field of mathematics was one of the founders of the prospect area and devised some tools including a compass parabolic .He became interested in optical inter alia trying to improve the theory of the lenses and mirrors ; measurement techniques trying to build and improve a variety of tools, including a clock, a hygrometer , an odometer and an anemometer , and tried to measure the expansive force of the steam ; made important studies on the physiology and human anatomy , especially on the structure of the heart; Finally took care of zoological, botanical, textile art and left a large number of other important inventions .